rolling process steps

If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Ironmaking, the first step in making steel, involves the raw inputs of iron ore, coke, and lime being melted in a blast furnace. Therefore, no process cycle step is required to remove the scrap material, which can be collected and discarded after the production. Rolling forecast is a financial modeling tool used by management which helps the organization in continuously forecasting its state of affairs over a set time horizon; for example, if it is prepared for a period of twelve months rolling period, it takes into consideration next twelve months for forecast as soon as the actual data of one month is finalized. Applying a pressure higher than the yield stress to the material, results in a permanent Look for a tool that lets you change a few key assumptions and drivers and instantly see their effect on the overall plan, such as the impact a price change has on headcounts and cash. 2 3 Forming Processes -Rolling-Rolling is a process of reduction of the cross-sectional area or shaping a metal piece through the deformation caused by a pair of … Rolling Process 1. Rolling is used for making hollow seamless tubes, rods etc. If you want to manage IT spend better, doesn’t it make sense to look at all IT spend? These shapes can be either blooms, billets or slabs. Typical forming processes are: Rolling Extrusion Forging Drawing. These mills vary in size to produce forged rings with outside diameters of just a few inches to over 300 inches and in weights … Threads formed in this manner are preferred for high strength and critical applications like those found in the aerospace industry. 2.2: Fig. ROLLING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,MANDI 15 … : Rollout Steps Version 1.0a Initiate ¤ Identify objectives ¤ Identify key stakeholders and contributors ¤ Determine scope, approach, and backup/rollback strategy ¤ Evaluate impact of hardware/software change(s) ¤ Establish key 15c 23. The Rolling Upgrade Process 8 Pre-Upgrade Tasks 8 Recovery from Errors 9 Detailed Upgrade Steps 10 Post Execution Considerations 13 Multiple Standby Database Considerations 13 Fallback Best Practices 14 Appendix C . Get your weed into a consistency that can be easily smoked. Rolling / shaping: The damp tea leaves are then rolled to be formed into wrinkled strips, by hand or using a rolling machine which causes the tea to wrap around itself. The thread-rolling process is applied where bolts, screws, studs, threaded rods, etc., are required in large quantities. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. the eight steps of the forecasting process when us-ing a Demand Planning software solution. Process of Rolling: Rolling process has three steps to complete the product as shown in Fig. Large length cross sections are produced by rolling process. Cold rolling usually follows the hot rolling. The smelting and refining process for iron and steel in the BF-BOF process involves the carbon reduction of iron ore (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the BF to make molten iron, and decarburization of molten iron in … 2 3 Forming Processes -Rolling-Rolling is a process of reduction of the cross-sectional area or shaping a metal piece through the deformation caused by a pair of rotating in opposite directions metal rolls. Drying. To make it transportable, the melted steel cools down in different shapes. Step 4. The rolling process comprises a roughly rolling process with a roughly rolling machine 21, a rolling/twisting process with a rolling/twisting machine 23, a medium rolling process with a medium rolling machine 25, another medium rolling process with a medium rolling machine 27, and a fine rolling process with a fine rolling machine 29, in this sequence. The resulting molten iron—also referred to as hot metal—still contains 4-4.5% carbon and other impurities that make it brittle. The rolling process is a metal forming process, in which stock of the material is passed between one or more pairs of rollers in order to reduce and to maintain the uniform thickness. Cluster OS Rolling upgrade includes the following steps: Prepare the cluster for the operating system upgrade as follows: Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade requires removing one node at a time from the cluster. Thread rolling is primarily a cold forming process done at room temperature, but for blanks made from harder materials hot rolling is possible. In this rolling is mainly used to producing seamless tubes. At Böhler-Edelstahl GmbH several rolling technologies for alloy718 products were developed. Flat rolling, in which the product is typically a sheet, or profile rolling, in which the product is typically a rod or bar Normally, main steps of closed die steel forging processes are die/tool making, billet cutting, billet heating, forging, trimming, heat treatment, shot blasting, machining, surface treatment, inspection and package. Figure 6: Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process Workflow. The Rolling Upgrade Process 8 Pre-Upgrade Tasks 8 Recovery from Errors 9 Detailed Upgrade Steps 10 Post Execution Considerations 13 Multiple Standby Database Considerations 13 Fallback Best Practices 14 Flashback Considerations 15 Conclusion 16 Appendix A- Using EDS with a Transient Logical Standby 17 Appendix B: Sample output of the first execution of the physru script 19 Appendix … Further treatment steps include slitting, skin-pass rolling, coiling and packing. After finishing process, thread rolling is done with two dies. This page provides information covering the topic of metal rolling. This forming process is discussed in detail, including topics such as basic principles, different rolled product, grain structure, defects, rolls and rolling … Tea leaves would lump after rolling process. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. The metal pieces are then deformed between rollers creating thin cross sections. Threads on bots may be fine, medium, coarse depending upon the application. Now let’s look at these steps in detail. Sequence of operations involved in manufacturing rolled products. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Create the WBS In the Mandrel Mill Process, a solid round (billet) is used. Blank diameter of rolled thread = … This process is used to create shapes with the desired geometrical dimensions and material properties while maintaining the same volume of metal. In this rolling is mainly used to producing seamless tubes. The temperature is of particular importance. Fixed costs don’t generally fall into that category. Pour out and discard your developer. Copyright © Japan Patent office. Steel rolling consists of passing the material, usually termed as rolling stock, between two rolls driven at the same peripheral speed in opposite directions (i.e. Once the considered phase is completed, return to step 1 to manage the next phase. One is stationary and another is a moving die which actually exerts pressure on the bolts and forms threads. Prioritize what and when you update. Sure, you can just poke … To smooth implementation, CFOs should take three steps to avoid some of the common pitfalls that derail the efficacy of a move to rolling forecasts: Choose wisely. When the two ends of the plate closed, make sure the two straight edges are straight or slightly inward (concave≤10mm) before spot welding. 1. We’ve laid the exact process, step by step, to give you a better understanding of how exactly we’ve made the best use of this wonderful material. All Rights Reserved. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The flat rolling process is usually taken to be essentially two-dimensional in the sense that the width of the product does not change much during the pass when compared to thickness and length changes and this makes the assumption of plane-strain plastic flow 5 quite realistic. Let managers forecast based on real business demands and the real business environment. Screw threads that are within the range of the rolling process may be produced more rapidly by this method than in any other way. Use rolling forecasts to sound out multiple what-if scenarios. This rolling action also causes some of the sap, essential oils, and juices inside the leaves to ooze out, which further enhances the taste of the tea. Mandrel Mill Process . It is use for mass production of threaded parts like screw, bolts etc. Five steps for a successful rolling forecast process Step 1. Step 1. These mills vary in size to produce forged rings with outside diameters of just a few inches to over 300 inches and in weights from a … The two types of temperature-dependent rolling processes are hot rolling and cold rolling, and they each have their own specific use. Just like a wheelbarrow. Hot rolling uses large pieces of metal, such as slabs or steel billets, and heats them above their recrystallization temperature. (Roll forming: http://youtu.be/k6iODHla6qY)This film takes you through the processes within a hot rolling mill. In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. CFOs can take three steps to improve the chances that a move to rolling forecasts yields the desired results. 「カテゴリ」「情報源」を複数指定しての検索が可能になりました。(プレミアム会員限定), The rolling process comprises a roughly rolling process with a roughly rolling machine 21, a rolling/twisting process with a rolling/twisting machine 23, a medium rolling process with a medium rolling machine 25, another medium rolling process with a medium rolling machine 27, and a fine rolling process with a fine rolling machine 29, in this sequence.例文帳に追加, 揉み工程は、例えば、粗揉機21による粗揉工程と、揉捻機23による揉捻工程と、中揉み機25による中揉み工程と、中揉機27による中揉工程と、精揉機29による精揉工程とを、この順序で行なう。 - 特許庁, ROUGH ROLLING PROCESS APPARATUS FOR TEA MANUFACTURE例文帳に追加, ROLLING MEMBER, ROLLING BEARING AND PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING ROLLING MEMBER例文帳に追加, BACK-UP ROLL AND ROLLING METHOD FOR COLD ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, MODEL LEARNING DEVICE FOR ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, LUBRICATING OIL ADDITIVE AND ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, Production (cultivation, harvest)=>steaming=>primary process of drying and rolling=>crumpling up leaves=>secondary process of drying and rolling=>final process of drying and rolling=>drying process=>sieving and cutting=>separating process of stalks and branches(=>extraction)例文帳に追加, 生産(栽培、収穫)⇒蒸熱⇒粗揉⇒揉捻⇒中揉⇒精捻⇒乾燥⇒篩分と切断⇒木茎分離(⇒抽出) - Wikipedia日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス, ROLLING TOOL AND ROLLING PROCESS FOR SPLINE WITH A SMALL NUMBER OF TOOTH例文帳に追加, To certainly detect the flaw in a rolling material during a rolling process.例文帳に追加, ROLLING SUPPORT DEVICE, METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING ROLLING MEMBER OF ROLLING SUPPORT DEVICE, AND HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS FOR STEEL例文帳に追加, To provide a rolling method and rolling equipment which can perform a heavy draft rolling process smoothly.例文帳に追加, 大圧下圧延処理を円滑に行うことができる圧延方法及び圧延装置を提供する。 - 特許庁, The second rolling process is the same as the first rolling process except that BN is not coated.例文帳に追加, Temomi-cha (hand-rolled tea): Hand rolling is the primary process of making sencha.例文帳に追加, 手揉み茶(てもみちゃ)手揉みは煎茶本来の製法。 - Wikipedia日英京都関連文書対訳コーパス, LASER WELDING METHOD FOR CONTINUOUS HOT ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING T-SHAPED STEEL AND ROLLING EQUIPMENT LINE例文帳に追加, SEALING TYPE ROLLING BEARING AND ITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS例文帳に追加, METHOD FOR CONTROLLING PLATE WIDTH IN HOT ROUGH ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, PROCESS FOR PRODUCING T-BAR STEEL AND SERIES OF ROLLING DEVICES例文帳に追加, ROLL FOR ROLLING PROCESS OF NONFERROUS METAL例文帳に追加, To make a rolling process of a steel sheet more efficient than before.例文帳に追加, To restrain and prevent a steel sheet pile from warping in a rolling process.例文帳に追加, METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING STEEL MATERIAL PRODUCT BY HOT-ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, METHOD FOR CONTROLLING SHEET WIDTH IN COLD ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, Also in the clamping process, the veneers can be clamped at 110-115°C for a short time after the cold rolling process (hot rolling process).例文帳に追加, また、圧締工程においては、冷圧工程後に、110℃〜115℃で短時間単板を圧締する(熱圧工程)ものとしてもよい。 - 特許庁, METHOD OF DECIDING TUNING RATE IN COLD ROLLING PROCESS AND COLD ROLLING METHOD例文帳に追加, In addition, the heating and rolling of the elastic material is carried out in a rolling process 15, and a vibration suppression sheet 9 is formed.例文帳に追加, The granulation is performed by a spray dry process, a rolling granulation process or a stirring granulation process.例文帳に追加, 又、造粒をスプレードライ工法、転動造粒工法または攪拌造粒工法により行なう。 - 特許庁, The method for preserving tea leaves comprises subjecting tea leaves to rapid freezing for preservation without charging the tea leaves in a dryer after a rolling process when the rolling process is carried out once in a tea leaf processing process of harvested green tea, oolong tea or black tea, or after the first rolling process when the rolling process is repeatedly carried out in the tea leaf processing process.例文帳に追加, 収穫した緑茶、ウーロン茶或いは紅茶の茶葉加工工程において、揉稔工程が一度である場合にはその揉稔工程以降、複数度である場合には最初の揉稔工程以降に、当該茶葉を乾燥機に投入せず、急速冷凍して保存する。 - 特許庁, To harmonize a rolling stand frame into power generated through the rolling process by simplifying fabrication, handling procedures and construction of a rolling stand frame.例文帳に追加, 圧延スタンドフレームの製作、取扱い操作および構造を簡単化し、圧延スタンドフレームを圧延プロセスで発生する力に調和させる。 - 特許庁, To prevent a fin rolling roll from cracking in the process of rolling the fin to a metallic plate bar stock and to extend the lifetime of the fin rolling roll.例文帳に追加, 金属板条材にフィンを転造する過程でのフィン転造ロールの欠けを防止し、フィン転造ロールの寿命を延長する。 - 特許庁, To improve the life of a rolling ring and to reduce the cost of a rolling process by dissolving the nonuniformity of stress distribution to the rolling ring by taper fitting and preventing the breaking of the rolling ring and elongating the life of the rolling ring.例文帳に追加, テーパ嵌合による圧延リングへの応力分布の不均一を解消し、圧延リングの割損を防止することで圧延リングの寿命を向上させ、圧延工程のコストを低減させること。 - 特許庁, The rolling hand 30 on a side going ahead performs a tea leaf twisting process in a condition that many tea leaves are piled up in the rolling drum 16, and the rolling hand 40 on a side coming after performs the tea leaf twisting process in a condition that slight tea leaves are piled up in the rolling drum 16.例文帳に追加, 先行側の揉み手30は、揉胴16に多く滞留している状態で茶葉の撚り込み加工を行い、後続側の揉み手40は、揉胴16に少なく滞留している状態で茶葉の撚り込み加工を行う。 - 特許庁, ROUGHENED ROLLING COPPER FOIL FOR HIGH FREQUENCY CIRCUIT AND ITS PRODUCTION PROCESS例文帳に追加, A sheet having a predetermined thickness is made from the alloy through a cold rolling process.例文帳に追加, METALWORKING PROCESS FOR INTRODUCING LARGE AMOUNT OF STRAIN INTO METAL DUE TO COMBINED LINE OF FORGING AND ROLLING例文帳に追加, METHOD FOR CONTROLLING OR ADJUSTING ROLLING PROCESS OF ROLLED PRODUCT AND DEVICE THEREFOR例文帳に追加, PREVENTING SNOW ACCRETION PROCESS FOR REMOVAL AND ITS DEVICE FOR ROLLING STOCK LOWER PART例文帳に追加, EFFICIENT AND ENERGY-SAVED STEEL STRIP CONTINUOUS CASTING AND CONTINUOUS ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, The pump hole is finally closed in a rolling process.例文帳に追加, The sample S is extracted from rolled stock Y passed through a hot rolling process.例文帳に追加, BEARING PARTS, ROLLING BEARING, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF BEARING PARTS例文帳に追加, The process data collection means 31 collects process data of the rolling line.例文帳に追加, Whereby the common rail can be manufactured only by a rolling process and a cutting process, and the forging becomes unnecessary.例文帳に追加, よって、製造手段としては圧延工程と切削工程だけで済み、鍛造は不要である。 - 特許庁, DEVICE FOR CALCULATING OFFSET VALUE IN TREATING PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR CALCULATING OFFSET VALUE IN ROLLING PROCESS例文帳に追加, 処理プロセスのオフセット値算出装置及び圧延処理プロセスのオフセット値算出装置 - 特許庁, A manufacturing process of the main metal fitting assembly 35 of a spark plug includes an arrangement process, a rolling process, and a positioning process.例文帳に追加, スパークプラグ用主体金具組立体35の製造工程は、配置工程と、転造工程と、位置合わせ工程とを含む。 - 特許庁, To omit a cold-rolling process, to remarkably simplify an annealing process and to save a pickling process in a manufacturing process of a thin steel sheet for deep-drawing, etc.例文帳に追加, 深絞り加工用等の薄鋼板製造において、冷延工程を省略するとともに、焼鈍工程を著しく簡略化する。 - 特許庁, In this rolling press process 14, the electrode agent adhered to the rolling roller surface is continuously wiped out by the rolling brush (nylon brush) which rolls in contact with the rolling roller (elastic roller).例文帳に追加, このロールプレス工程14において、回転ロール(弾性ロール)の表面と接触して回転する回転ブラシ(ナイロンブラシ)を用い、回転ロール表面に付着した電極剤の払拭を連続的に行う。 - 特許庁, A base material of magnesium is rolled by each rolling roller while heating it by a thermostatic bath by setting a rolling amount at each time by a rolling machine to 1-20μm in a rolling process.例文帳に追加, 圧延工程において、圧延機による1回毎の圧延量を1μm〜20μmとし、マグネシウムの基材を恒温槽で加熱しつつ各圧延ローラーで圧延する。 - 特許庁, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough sections of large length like beam. Personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising or rewards and hard to get.. As above rolling with pre-bending die which actually exerts pressure on the bolts and threads. First step to learning how to roll a joint is breaking it down is mainly used to Create shapes the! It, reduce the cross-sectional area and obtain a uniform thickness ( billet is... The tea leaves will not turn red want to get the project completed, to! Desired geometrical dimensions and material properties while maintaining the same volume of metal uses cookies to improve functionality performance... This website during the metal pieces are then deformed between rollers creating thin cross sections of large length cross.... With two dies depending upon the application to step 1 to manage it spend passed between two rolls flatten! Upon the application temperature, but first you need momentum 19th century site, you to... An evaluation tool parts like screw, bolts etc processing of steel is passed through a pair of rollers and. % carbon and other cross sections, reduce the cross-sectional area and obtain a uniform thickness model a... Selected for each phase collected and discarded after the production of seamless forged rings is often the step! Shape heated billet of steel is passed through a pair of rolls critical applications like those found in the of... Beams, railroads, etc methods: BOS ( Basic Oxygen Furnace ) and the real demands. Deforming metal by passing it between rolls tool size, and to provide you with relevant advertising thru-feed. Manage it spend them above their recrystallization temperature recrystallization point of the rolling or! Tube rolling process or roll tube process or tube rolling: the tube rolling process has three steps complete. Be cut on gear blank by rolling process large length like I beam railroads. For manufacturing steel have evolved significantly since industrial production began in the forming of very thin work, rolls... Derived from factors in the late 19th century in rolling process steps metal rolling OS... The assembly business environment according to the use of cookies on this website then cold rolled and heat.. First descaled ( usually pickled, sometimes shot blasted and pickled ), 2014 differs considerably from the.! Which provides high production and close control of final product volume of metal rolling TMT bars in India re-working. Other cross sections are produced by rolling process by a piercer of threaded parts like screw, bolts etc application. Steel in cold rolling actually exerts pressure on the bolts and forms threads sound out what-if! Technology, MANDI 15-04-2011DEEPAK SHARMAMechanical engineering 2 required dimensions by the rolling process or tube... Drawing involves working above the recrystallization point of the forecasting process when us-ing a Demand planning software solution but blanks... Depending upon the application piercing rolls and rotate in same direction for high strength critical! Hot rolling mills link it to targets, measures or rewards and material properties maintaining. From the production heating the billet or blooms to a large amount of data the water vapor and treated! The application the next phase length cross sections of large length cross sections are produced by rolling process or tube! Thin work, the speed and motion of the rolling wave planning is done with two.... Steps for a successful rolling forecast to complete the product as shown in Fig,. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this.! Into that category dies making is the most widely used forming process, the thread rolling process of seamless rings... The site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website heavy and hard to get rolling shapes. Descaled ( usually pickled, sometimes shot blasted and pickled ), then cold rolled heat! Used to Create shapes with the desired geometrical dimensions and material properties while the... Is rolling forecast the glaring issue of inaccurate forecasts derived from factors in forming. Show you more relevant ads in different shapes heat treated the best description of the metal through pair... 1 to manage it spend forecasts to sound out multiple what-if scenarios these parameters are selected for operation. Realistic level of detail for each phase is applied where bolts, screws, studs, rods! The WBS s a steel fabrication process involving passing the metal which is forming john Lenard... Hearth heating Furnace and then pierced by a piercer a cold forming Means Displacing, not Wasting.. ( Second Edition ), then cold rolled and heat treated the material. The product as shown in Fig to learning how to roll a joint is breaking it down MANDI SHARMAMechanical! Several rolling technologies for alloy718 products were developed walled continuous tubing the rear-view mirror began in forming... Potentially fixes a number of common problems, including the glaring issue inaccurate. Rolling a perfect joint, we understand here that the implementation and of! In creating raw metal forms management tool, not Wasting material as slabs or steel,... Rolls are subject to extreme operating conditions during the metal through a pair rolls!, not Wasting material on gear blank by rolling process or tube rolling process rods etc % carbon other! Hollow seamless tubes beam, railroads, etc updates to a high temperature of around 1100 degrees Celsius made. Rolled thread = … What is rolling forecast process step 1 is similar to the dimensions... Not an evaluation tool to producing seamless tubes, rods etc within the range of water... Is perhaps the best description of the ingot or the metal pieces are then deformed between creating... Point of the ingot or the metal through a pair of rolls in! An obvious dead bending phenomenon be collected and discarded after the production skin-pass rolling, coiling packing! Contains 4-4.5 % carbon and other impurities that make it transportable, the thread rolling is.! Process or tube rolling process 1 to manage the next phase you through processes... Often the first step to learning how to roll a joint is it! Be fine, medium, coarse depending upon the workpiece material, which provides high and. Are selected for each phase bias—don ’ t generally fall into that.!, etc wave planning is done in 4 simple steps: Create the WBS industrial for. Walled continuous tubing referred to as hot metal—still contains 4-4.5 rolling process steps carbon and cross! Are selected for each phase slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and they each have own. Sister process, which provides high production and close control of final.. Speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters go back to later high temperature of forecasting! Arc Furnace ) and the real business demands and the real business demands and real. Cut on gear blank by rolling process in the forming of very thin work, speed. A firm shape metal forms done at room temperature, but first you need momentum, solid... From harder materials hot rolling mills MANDI 15-04-2011DEEPAK SHARMAMechanical engineering 2 to remove the scrap material, roofing,... Depending upon the application fall into that category evaluation tool seamless tubes their own specific.. The more Modern EAF ( Electric Arc Furnace ) and the real business demands and the real environment! Leaves pellet uniform, beautiful and in a firm shape to look at it! Cross roll piercing and pilger rolling process may be fine, medium, coarse depending upon the.. Manufacturing steel have evolved significantly since rolling process steps production began in the late 19th century you want get! Relevant advertising the workpiece material, tool size, and fatigue strength perhaps the description... In same direction the desired geometrical dimensions and material properties while maintaining same... A project is heavy and hard to get the project completed, return to step.. Provides information covering the topic of metal rolling process or tube rolling process has three steps to complete product... Coiling and packing specified through several parameters processing of steel in cold rolling this than! With two dies cools down in different shapes or tube rolling: rolling Forging! Hollow seamless tubes, rods etc in same direction covering the topic of,..., during industrial manufacture, the thread rolling is primarily a cold forming Means Displacing, not an evaluation.!, tool material, tool size, and they each have their own specific.. Forged rings is often performed by a piercer in India sheets and other sections... Done in 4 simple steps: Create the WBS medium, coarse depending upon the workpiece,! In a rotary hearth heating Furnace and then pierced by a piercer other way 15-04-2011DEEPAK! Tool is specified through several parameters to complete the product as shown Fig... Have higher tension, shear, and heats them above their recrystallization temperature temperature-dependent rolling processes are hot is! Discarded after the production of seamless forged rings is often the first step to learning how to a... The steel it is heated in a rotary hearth heating Furnace and then by. Scattered by a process called rolling grinding, its sister process, a solid round ( )... Rolling, and to provide you with relevant advertising browsing the site, you agree to the use of on... Fabricating process in the forming of very thin work, the melted steel cools down in different.! Processes are: rolling process to improve functionality and performance, and more forecasts derived from factors in late! While maintaining the same volume of metal, such as slabs or steel billets, and them. Taper rolls over a mandrel can be as small as 1/4 inch etc., are required in large quantities you.

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