Future inventions that might transform genetic experiments include synthetic genomes and artificial chromosomes. Synthetic genomes allow for the complete synthesis of DNA molecules, enabling researchers to replace whole organelle genomes with single DNA molecule. This technology would enable researchers to design new genes with specific functions and introduce them into plants with no disruption to native chromosomes.
Genetic engineering has a long history. The intent of genetic engineers is to create new breeds of plants, animals, and crops that have improved traits. However, some experts warn that this process can have unintended consequences. For example, a genetically modified plant may require less water or light to grow, which could negatively impact domestic species. It could also lead to the rapid extinction of unmodified species, reducing biodiversity.
Selective genetic engineering can also be used to diagnose certain conditions. For instance, it may help treat Cystic fibrosis, which is a progressive disease without a cure. It might also help detect certain conditions before birth, such as Down’s syndrome and sickle cell anemia. With this technology, a doctor can even detect these conditions before the baby is born, thus preventing abortion.
The development of new technology for gene modification has led to the rapid creation of a new genome. The development of TALENs, a gene editing tool derived from bacteria, opened up new avenues for genetic experiments. TALENs, for example, are designed to target specific regions of the genome. These tools can even target induced local lesions in the genome.