Benin bronzes are held by a number of European institutions, including Berlins Ethnology Museum © Staatliche Museen Berlin; Ethnologisches Museum
When a group of Europe-based ethnology experts in April announced plans to create a digital inventory of works of art looted from the Kingdom of Benin, some people were skeptical. “Will they also be digitally repatriated?” asked one Twitter user somewhat caustically.
The so-called Benin bronzes have become a touchstone to test European museums readiness to restitute heritage looted from Africa in the colonial era. After the violent 1897 plunder and devastation of the Royal Palace of Benin by British troops, at least 3,000 artefacts were dispersed internationally—probably many more.
Only a few have been restituted. Cambridge Universitys Jesus College, for example, announced last year it would return a bronze cockerel bequeathed to it in 1930 by a British army officer.
The captured Oba Ovonramwen on the British yacht Ivy on the way to exile in Calabar Photo: J.A.Green, 1897 © MARKK
As yet, none of the major European museums with holdings of looted Benin artefacts has committed to return them permanently. “Sometimes it looks like everyone is dancing around the main point,” says Victor Ehikhamenor, an artist from Benin who contributed to the Nigerian pavilion at the 2017 Venice Biennale. “Its still a bit murky, and a bit slow.”
Stopping short of promising full repatriation, the Benin Dialogue Group, whose members include the British Museum, Viennas Weltmuseum, Oxford Universitys Pitt Rivers Museum and Berlins Ethnology Museum, agreed in 2018 to “contribute from their collections on a rotating basis” to a future Royal Museum in Benin City.
Barbara Plankensteiner, the director of the Museum am Rothenbaum in Hamburg, heads the Digital Benin initiative and is a founder member of the Benin Dialogue Group. She points out that the group cannot make decisions for individual museums on repatriation.
She adds, though, that there is no reason why loans and repatriations can not happen simultaneously. “One doesnt rule the other out,” she says. “Its clear that significant parts of Benin collections should and will be handed back. The prospect of a new museum has added impetus.”
A year ago, the Edo State Government—which together with the Royal Court of Benin and the National Commission for Museums and Monuments comprises the Nigerian members of the Benin Dialogue Group—said it will set up a trust responsible for planning the museum. The architect David Adjaye presented his vision of the museum to the group. An international fund-raising campaign is also planned. But the coronavirus pandemic, and elections this year in Edo State, risk pushing the project, which was due to be completed in 2023, further into the future.
British soldiers with looted art treasures from the Royal Palace in Benin © 2020 The Trustees of the British Museum
Dan Hicks, a curator at the Pitt Rivers Museum and professor of contemporary archaeology at Oxford University says the new museum “is seen by some as the moment at which the next steps will be made, but much global activity is moving forward.” He expects that Digital Benin, whose website is due to be launched in 2022, “will undoubtedly serve to increase awareness of the case for full, permanent restitution of the 1897 loot.”
With funding of €1.2m from the Ernst von Siemens art foundation, Plankensteiners team consists of Felicity Bodenstein of the Sorbonne University, Jonathan Fine of Berlins Ethnological Museum and Anne Luther, an expert in digital humanities. The project will have offices in Hamburg and Benin City and has advertised for staff.
For scholars in Nigeria, who have struggled to get access to both the objects and archive material that is mostly outside the country, the database is a welcome prospect. Many of the works seized from Benin are intrinsically connected to rites and ceremonies and some of the reliefs record historic events in the kingdom.
“I like to see it like a book,” says Kokunre Eghafona, professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Benin. “The looting was like a book being torn to pieces and then the pages were put in different places. Gathering them together in one place is great.”
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